How CKB and RGB++ are Quietly Redefining Crypto Networks

10 Jul 2024

When the RGB++ protocol was first introduced, it garnered significant market attention that got many people discussing the potential impact of this new Bitcoin Layer 1 ( L1) asset standard.

Its first use case, the isomorphic binding technology, combines the BTC and CKB networks, leading to a renewed interest in the CKB network and new expectations for its future development.

However, as time passed and the initial excitement waned, it seemed the interest fell. But has it really fallen silent?

This is a translation of a post written by DaPangDun, an independent crypto researcher.

Focusing Attention

As projects in the market strive to capture users' attention, the "Attention Economy" has become a frequently mentioned term. However, attention is often "short-lived" and can easily be diverted. This is the current state of the market, where most of us follow the "market hot spots," with few reaping benefits while most suffer losses and anxiety.

I always believe that if you want to focus on a particular category/project, you need to follow and adjust your understanding of it over a long period. This cycle does not have to be measured in years but at least in months. This is because technological development, growth, and application take time; they do not appear out of thin air and do not accelerate just because there are many people involved.

I research each category/project I like with this mindset. You will see that I have been evangelizing about the RGB protocol for almost a year now and continuously give updates on the protocol and ecosystem projects. The same goes for RGB++ protocol.

Sustained attention often generates greater value because it is based on deeper understanding and rational cognition. This principle is similar to "focus generates power," even in a rapidly changing and emotion-driven industry like crypto. So, it seems a good idea to focus attention on the recent developments of CKB and RGB++.

Development and improvement of CKB/RGB++ Ecosystem

On April 24, I shared an ecosystem map of the Nervos network. A friend commented: "It looks like there are many, but actually only the lower-left part matters."

Yes, at that time, some parts of the lower left were still in the conceptual stage. Some were not developed yet, and some were just developed but immature. On the one hand, there were historical issues left over from the last cycle that needed to be addressed. On the other hand, the new protocol had just been established, with many infrastructures and projects waiting to flourish or to be developed.

Now, two and a half months have passed, let’s take a look at what’s changed:

RGB++ Ecosystem


  • JoyID wallet has made many upgrades based on user needs, now supports mnemonic phrase, private key exports, and more networks
  • Gate wallet announced support for RGB++ assets
  • Unofficial support tools for Unisat and OKX wallets completed
  • Unisat is likely to support RGB++ assets soon (as seen in the latest Fractal)


  • LeapX working on cross-chain assets based on RGB++
  • Nervape conducted two rounds of accessory airdrops
  • World3 issued assets based on RGB++
  • Cellula issued assets based on RGB++
  • .bit transformed into an RGB++ asset to create a universal domain name system


  • Platforms like HueHub, Omiga, JoyID Market, and Dobby are gradually maturing
  • UTXOSwap, the intent-based AMM DEX, is about to go live
  • Metaforo completed a voting system for RGB++ assets on Layer 1 and Layer 2


  • UTXO Stack making rapid progress and is soon to become an important part of CKB and RGB++ expansion
  • The application of "isomorphic binding technology" based on other chains is under development

CKB Ecosystem

  • Based on the Cell feature, more networks are being supported
  • The Nostr protocol integrated and the related binding technology completed
  • Cooperated with third-party institutions to issue ccBTC and introduce BTC assets into the ecosystem
  • Cooperated with Mobit to manage CKB and RGB++ assets in different wallets
  • Released CCC, a tool for developers to interoperate wallets from other chain ecosystems with CKB
  • CKB-based Lightning Network set to start testing

Of course, this is only the part I know. There might be more being worked on... Actually, I am quite amazed by such speed and progress, but it has not received enough attention in this market filled with “all kinds of information." After sorting out this information, I tried to outline the development route of CKB and RGB++.

Key Characteristics

To achieve this goal, we need to build on precise self-positioning. What is the positioning of CKB and RGB++? To answer this, we need to return to the understanding of CKB and RGB++, and find their characteristics.

In the market, each project/technology has its characteristics. For example, BTC’s characteristic is "most decentralized, most secure," ETH’s characteristic is "smart contracts," RGB’s characteristic is "client-side," and the Lightning Network’s characteristic is "native, payments." So, what are the characteristics of CKB and RGB++?

RGB++: Binding

Many emphasize that RGB++ is a BTC Layer 1 asset protocol. In my view, this is not the main characteristic. There are many Layer 1 asset protocols, such as BRC-20, Runes, Atomicals... We are not lacking in Layer 1 asset protocols. What we lack is a truly innovative technology. Yes, it is the "isomorphic binding"!

In the entire RGB++ technology, "isomorphic binding" is the essence. The "L1/L2 duality description" we see in the market all stems from this technology. It provides a new way for assets to cross-chain, allowing assets to flow freely in a native manner using isomorphic chains. It is like building bridges between isolated islands. Previously, you had to entrust people with small boats to transport goods but now you can take the goods yourself across the bridge.

What is a new technology narrative? It may be a new concept/form/implementation process, but it must be something the market has not seen or tried before. In this context, isomorphic binding is one such technology.

CKB: Cell

It is difficult to define CKB’s characteristics. It has many labels: a star public blockchain, Proof of Work (PoW), enhanced UTXO... These labels carry CKB's features. But if I were to choose, I would lean towards a characteristic that allows it to go far— Cell.

Yes, it is a new accounting model created by CKB: the Cell model. It is an enhanced UTXO model that combines the programmability of the account model with the scalability and flexibility of the UTXO model. Its level of abstraction helps place fewer restrictions on system and application developers. Combined with CKB-VM, it can develop many functions that are not possible with the traditional UTXO model. In terms of scalability, EVM and others have already achieved great heights. But is this something new? For the account model, it is indeed common. But for the UTXO model, it is challenging. If you pay a little attention to the BTC ecosystem's development, you will realize that it is difficult to achieve a small aspect of scalability based on UTXO. Thanks to the early framework of CKB, it can have this scalability in the UTXO chain.

Actually, I also wanted to add the PoW, but most people have no feeling about the consensus mechanism of the chain. After all, it is just for verification on the chain. However, as you delve deeper, you will find that PoW is the "bottom value" and the "support of decentralization." Of course, the market may not care about these: what if a public chain is controlled by a dozen nodes as long as it can be played?

Two Lines

Now to roughly clarify the two lines: the two related parallel but not entirely subordinate lines.

RGB++ line: Assets, Flow, and Extension

To play the role of isomorphic binding, assets are the foundation. So it is necessary to promote different ecosystem projects to issue RGB++ assets.

For assets to flow, transaction behaviors are needed. So various Layer 1 and Layer 2 platforms are essential. Implementing Layer 2 functions relies on the Cell design where the lines intersect.

It cannot just be played within a small circle. More domains need to be extended hence the need to connect more Layer 1 assets and chains. This is why ccBTC, LeapX, and Fractal were introduced. To achieve the extension’s theoretical design and practical development, a budget is required hence the "CKB Eco Fund" was established.

CKB line: Infrastructure, Innovation, Scenarios

Various assets need to be used within the CKB network. So, whether it’s on the product side or the development tool side, there is a need to supplement the infrastructure. To solve the capacity issue of CKB, UTXO Stack is needed; to solve the TPS issue of payment, CKB's Lightning Network is needed, and new functions need to be developed according to actual needs. To fully take advantage of Cell, suitable expansion scenarios need to be found. The AA wallet based on the Cell script can solve the payment scenario. When combined with Nostr, it can create functional social scenarios and it can create game-appropriate assets when combined with xUDT.

Nostr, a Key?

From a user perspective, we need interesting products; just talking about technology is useless. I seem to see a combination of products in the recent updates.

Nostr is a decentralized P2P communication protocol. It is simple and beautiful with high DIY properties. However, current Nostr-based products have not gained widespread attention. Social protocols like Prime are only used by some early geeks, and the associated BTC Lightning Network payment method is relatively complex.

What if Nostr is combined with the CKB network/RGB++ assets?

  • Nostr accounts can be used as CKB AA wallets, directly transferring payments to other accounts through Nostr accounts. The paid assets can be BTC assets, RGB++ assets, EVM assets, and even SOL assets in the future.

  • Nostr accounts can directly participate as dApps on CKB, performing tasks such as minting assets, and interacting with DeFi, similar to Solana’s latest Blink and Farcaster’s Frame mini-programs.

  • CKB’s upcoming Lightning Network will make payments faster, and the overall implementation process will be simpler. You do not need to bind a separate Lightning account, and CKB’s Lightning Network can even run smart contracts to achieve some logical control.

  • All Event content on Nostr can be directly programmed into different types of assets on the CKB network. The Event mechanism and CKB’s PoW network can effectively ensure asset ownership, and generate many interesting asset interactions and asset issuance ideas.


I have expectations for the CKB and RGB++ teams so I use the term "ambition" to express my hopes for their future, vision, and plans. Being a PoW chain that has been running for many years and still maintains updates and new narratives is not easy. You can find many counterexamples in this market: it is difficult to maintain a project’s original intention.

So, what are the ambitions of CKB and RGB++? Maybe it is to:

Build RGB++ into a road that connects other Layer 1 assets and UTXO chains. At the intersection is the castle built by CKB where various Web2/Web3 applications can operate widely, whether it is payment, social, finance, gaming, or others.